武汉科技大学专升本机械专业英语语法讲义题型②

武汉科技大学专升本机械专业英语语法讲义题型②

三、时态和语态

(一)时态

1.一般现在时(1)表示经常性、习惯性的动作;1.I get up at 7 o’ clock in the morning. 2.I leave school for home at 6 every evening. (2)客观真理,客观存在,科学事实;1.The teacher told us: the earth moves around the sun. 2.Shanghai lies in the east of China.

2. 一般过去时:两种变化形式:在动词后加ed或不规则变化的动词;在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态:常用时间状语:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等;Did you go to Shanghai last week?

补充:used to/be used to (1)used to + do:”过去常常”,表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在;Mike used to take a walk. (2)be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或”习惯于”,to是介词,后需加名词或动名词;1.Mike is used to taking a walk.2. He is used to taking a shower with cold water. (3)be used to do:被用来做……Leaves are used to fight enemies in Kong fu movies as the weapons.

—- Your phone number again? I _A__ quite catch it.

—- It’s 69568442.

A. didn’t B. couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

一般过去式和过去完成时的对比:(1)过去完成时:过去的过去;Before I came to Beijing, I had stayed in Shanghai. ① 一个句子里有两个谓语动词,一个发生在前,一个发生在后,发生在前的用一般过去时,发生在后的用过去完成时;When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. ② 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示”原本…,却未能…”1.We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t. 2.We had thought that he would take part in the competition,but he didn’t.

③ 虚拟语气:若虚拟的现象与过去事实相反,则用过去完成时;If you had come to my birthday party, you would have seen Yaoming.(虚拟语气中可以用had+过去分词,表示对过去事实的虚拟) 3. 一般将来时 (1)shall/will, shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替;Which paragraph shall I read first? (2)be going to +不定式,表示将来;表示要发生的事情有了预先的计划、准备或有迹象表明要发生;1.What are you going to do tomorrow? 2.What will you do this afternoon?(will表示纯粹的将来)

(3)be +不定式:表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事;We are to/will discuss the report next Saturday. (4)be about to +不定式:意为马上做某事,后面不可以接时间状语;He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:(1)一般现在时有时也可表将来;The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. ① 趋向性动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. ② 在时间或条件句中,用一般现在时表将来;I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive in Beijing.

(2)现在进行时也可表将来:通常用于口语,翻译为打算……;come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等词可以用进行时表将来;

4. 现在完成时:现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状态,其结果对现在造成影响。 (1)过去发生的动作发生到现在,刚刚完成; (2)从过去发生的动作,发生到现在,刚刚告一段落,但是后面会继续发生;1.I have just finished my homework. 2.It has rained for 3 days.

过去时与现在完成时的区别: (1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。1.I came to Beijing in 1995.2.I have stayed in Beijing since 1995. (2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与段的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。一般过去时常用时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October…(具体时间);He had dinner with me yesterday.现在完成时常用时间状语:for, since, so far…(长期的段时间)I have played basketball for 3 hours.

(3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know;He got married two years ago.过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等;I have lived in Beijing for 10 years.

用于现在完成时的句型

(1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

(2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I’ve (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。

This is the first time (that) I’ve heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

典型例题:—Have you ____ been to our town before?

—No, it’s the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。

since和for的用法: since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度;1.I have lived here for more than twenty years.2.I have lived here since I was born. for后面多接一段时间,而since后面则接一个时间点,若since后面也出现时间段,则在时间段后加ago;I have lived here since twenty years ago.错句:I have worked here since many years.

since句型:It is +一段时间+ since从句,since从句要用一般过去时;1.It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.2.It is three years since I joined the army.

5. 进行时态:一般进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时;6. 现在完成进行时:have/has+been+doing:现在完成进行时和现在完成时的区别:1.It has rained for 3 days. 2.It has been raining for 3 days.现在完成时不强调某一动作在某段时间内持续发生;现在完成进行时表示某一时间段内某动作持续发生。1.I have been learning English for 5 years.2.I have been learned English for 5 years.

(二)语态 一般 进行 完成 现在 am/is/are+过去分词 am/is/are+being+过去分词 have/has+been+过去分词 过去 was/were+过去分词 was/were+being+过去分词 had+been+过去分词 将来 will+be+过去分词 被动语态基本形式:be+动词过去分词;1.Forest have been cleared.3.They were given a warm send off.3.Their wedding will be held in the church.不强调施动者,而只强调受动者;The book was written 20 years ago.

1. The commission has already cleared the way for overseas firms to use IFRS when doing business or listing securities in America证券委员会已经为海外公司在美国做生意或者上市时候使用国际财务报表准则扫清了道路。

2. create something from scratch.白手起家

四、真题举例:

1.Despite the hardship he encountered, Mark never______________(放弃对知识的追求).

分析:give up/abandon/quit the pursuit of knowledge或者gave up/abandoned/quit the pursuit of knowledge

2.The study shows that the poor functioning of the human body is_______(与缺乏锻炼密切相关) 分析:is+doing/形容词:be closely related to:the lack of exercises:缺乏锻炼;is closely related to the lack of exercises

3.Through the project, many people have received training and______________(决定自己创业) 分析:have received:现在完成时;decided to:决定;创业:launch their own enterprise;decided to launch their own enterprise

4. I can’t boot my computer now. Something must____(一定出了毛病)with its operating system.分析:出了毛病:out of control;Something must be out of control/wrong with…

五、定语从句: eg:I know the girl. The girl comes from Beijing. I know the girl who comes from Beijing.步骤1.找到两个句子中相同的名词; 2.将两个名词中的一个进行替换,若是人,用who替换;若是物,用which替换;that既可以指人,又可以指物; 3.将who 或which引导的句子放在相同名词之后; eg:I like reading books. The books were written by O Henry. I like reading books which were written by O Henry.

eg:I planted a tree. The tree is taller than the house. The tree which I planted is taller than the house.

1. who/that/which所引导的句子必须放在相同名词之后; eg:The teacher prized the boy. The boy is my neighbor. The boy who the teacher prized is my neighbor.

eg:This is the book. You are looking for the book. This is the book which you are looking for. eg:This is the book. You are interested in the book. This is the book which you are interested in.

2. 谓语动词(结构)和后面的介词有两种关系:关系紧密&关系疏远; 关系紧密:谓语结构和介词合成在一起,联系紧密,不可分割,一旦分割意思就会发生改变;look for, be interested in , look after, look at 定语从句中如果谓语结构和介词关系紧密,则介词必须保留在谓语结构的后面,不能做任何位置的改动;如果谓语结构和介词关系疏远,介词一般提到which/who/that的前面; eg: This is the book which you are looking for. This is the book which you are interested in. This is the book in which you are interested. This is the book which you asked for.

3. 关系代词和关系副词: eg:Beijing is the place. I was born in the place. Beijing is the place which I was born in. Beijing is the place in which I was born. 定语从句中,如果介词+which表示地点,则可以用where替换; Beijing is the place where I was born. eg: I can’t forget the day. I join the army on the day. I can’t forget the day which I join the army on. I can’t forget the day on which I join the army. I can’t forget the day when I join the army.

判断: This is the mountain village where I visited last year. This is the mountain village in which I visited last year. This is the mountain village which I visited in last year.正确: This is the mountain village which/that I visited last year.

4. 判断关系代词和关系副词的方法:(1)不管是关系代词还是关系副词,都取决于从句中的谓语动词。若该谓语动词为及物动词,则一定使用关系代词;若该谓语动词为不及物动词,且其后没有介词,则一定使用关系副词; eg:I will never forget the days when I worked together with you. 错:I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. 对:I will never forget the days which I spent in the countryside.

(2)通过判断先行词在定语从句中的成分 eg:Is this the museum (that ) you visited a few days ago?(the museum:充当visit的宾语)Is this the museum ( in which/where ) the exhibition was held?

关系代词:前面句子里的先行词也要在后面的句子里充当主语或者宾语的成分;介词+which,恰好表示时间和地点,可以替换成when,where这样的关系副词;

5 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

(1)非限定性定语从句:先行词(即名词)后有一个逗号;In our school,there were 8 foreign teachers who come from Australia.(限定性定语从句)In our school,there were 8 foreign teachers,who come from Australia.(非限定性定语从句)限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系非常紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思会改变;非限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系不是很紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思不会改变,定语从句只起到补充说明的意义; eg:This is the house which we bought last month.

This is the house, which we bought last month.

(2)非限定性定语从句:

①先行词是前面的整句话; eg: He won the first place in the competition, which is out of our expectation. We will spend the Spring Festival in Guangzhou, which was decided last year.

This is the house, which we bought last month.

② 非限定性定语从句:which引导非限制性定语从句只能放在后面,as则只能放在句子前面; eg: Smoking is harmful to our heath, which we know. 错:Smoking is harmful to our heath, as we know. 对:As we know, smoking is harmful to our heath. eg:Alice received an invitation from her boss( D ) came as a surprise . A. It B. that C. as D. which

As用法:As far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality就数学规律能涉及现实生活中而言,他们是不确定的,就他们的确定性来说,他们就不能涉及到现实生活中As of this month, police will fine people who feed the pigeons从这个月开始,警察将对那些喂养鸽子的人罚款As it nears the place it can evolve the most from, it lingers当接近了能从中进化最多物质的位置时,它徘徊不前了He is so careful as not to say anything ambiguous他总是小心谨慎,从不说任何引起歧义的话Pressure for higher pay in China, as long as it reflects higher productivity, is a feature, not a bug只要是反映了更高的生产率,中国要求加薪的压力就是一项“功能”,而非缺陷As soon as any beneficial mutations arise, natural selection will favour its spread任何有利的变异一出现,自然选择就将有助于变异的散布Still, they need to commit to strong measures at home and agree to stand behind those commitments just as the developed nations must stand behind their own尽管如此,它们需要承诺在国内采取强有力的措施,并同意兑现这些承诺,就象发达国家必须言而有信一样Although modesty is natural to man(Natural as modesty is natural to man), it is not natural to children. Modesty only begins with the knowledge of evil谦虚是对成人而言是很自然的事情,但对孩子却不是。谦虚始于对邪恶的认识. She worked as though her life depended on it她工作的态度就像她依靠它生活As for the economy, the road back to health will be long and painful至于经济,恢复健康的道路将是漫长而又痛苦的That is why this idiom is used to describe ideas that are not realistic, as if they are dreams or fantasies那就是为什么这个习语是用来描述不切实际的想法的,那些(想法)就好像做梦和幻想一样But it will take more than a year for the world as a whole to recover from the food crisis of 2008但世界作为一个整体将仍需一年多的时间才能从2008年的粮食危机中恢复过来As such, the Chinese market offers further upside potential and could catch up with the gains of the other markets this ye就这一点而言,中国股市仍具进一步上涨潜力,其涨幅也可能在今年赶上其它市场As such, the US may find it more difficult to operate like a large closed economy at a time when it has become a more open economy that is losing its size advantage gradually如此一来,美国可能会发现自己更难像一个封闭的大型经济体那样运作,因为如今它已经变成了一个更为开放的经济体,其规模优势正逐渐丧失An intelligent virus would need to be able change its functionality as well as its appearance一个智能病毒应该可以把改变自己的功能做的跟改变外表一样好You may as well use another method你还不如用另一种方法But as the storm passes, the weaknesses become ever more evident然而,随着风暴过去,美元的疲软变得更加明显As some export industries shrink, new service industries will be needed to create jobs随着出口行业的萎缩,需要新兴的服务业来创造工作机会As his new company grows, his biggest challenge will be finding the right people for key roles随着新公司日益壮大,他最大的挑战将是物色关键职位的恰当人选As the organization evolved, so, it seems, did the founder prepare the firm for his succession因此,随着组织的进行,这位创始人似乎已为公司准备了他的继任As China moves up the value chain, it will export cheaper products in new industries, such as cars随着中国在价值链上的攀升,他将出口更多更便宜的工业产品,比如说汽车As the economy recovers, some of those people will move out of their shared③ homes and buy their own随着经济的复苏,其中一些人将搬出与他人同住的房子而去买他们自己的房子These goals will change and expand as your business grows, but using the business plan as a tool can help you stay on track随着企业的成长,这些目标会改变,壮大,而利用商业计划这个工具可以让你的企业按着既定的轨迹发展But as China’s power and capability increase, it may begin to rethink its attitude to the US military presence in its backyard但随着自身权力和能力的增长,中国或许会开始重新思考对待自己“后院”中美国军事存在的态度Since the end of 2001, US terms of trade have deteriorated by an eighth, as commodity prices have soared and the currency devalued2001年底以来,随着大宗商品价格飙升和本币贬值,美国贸易条件的恶化幅度已达八分之一International use of the renminbi will also rise as Chinese firms invest overseas and its government increases support to other countries随着中国企业投资海外、中国政府加大对他国的支援力度,人民币在国际上的应用也将增加As ever more firms spring up to convert organic waste into diesel, gas and power, a shortage of trash and slurry will afflict some countries随着越来越多的公司将有机垃圾转换为柴油,沼气和能源,一些国家将会受到垃圾和废水短缺的影响Other officials say it is natural for China to develop its military as it grows into a big power, but they raise questions about a lack of transparency其他官员表示,随着中国逐渐成长为大国,中国发展军力是自然的,但他们对于中方缺乏透明度提出了疑问One fear is that as banks scale back their balance-sheets, firms that rely on bank loans will have to act in step, axing their spending to reduce debts一种担心是随着银行缩小它们的资产负责表,这些依靠银行贷款的企业也将紧跟银行的步伐,削减它们的开支以减少负债This means its long-term prospects remain strong, although its trend growth rate will inevitably slow as its economy matures and its labour force starts to shrink这意味着,尽管经济的趋势增长率必将随着经济日益成熟、劳动力开始减少而升幅放缓,但中国的长期前景依然强劲As the markets crashed and the recession rolled in, every promise stood, however ancient its provenance, as though nothing had changed and dealing with the crisis was a separate issue随着市场崩盘,衰退显现,所有承诺都没有改变,不管其起源多么古老,好像一切都未曾改变,应对此次危机是另外一个问题一样Meanwhile, many cities will “move” to the countryside as the state frantically constructs new urban centres in the interior and as changing land use blurs the distinction between village and town与此同时,随着国家在内陆大举建设新的城镇中心,以及土地用途的改变使城乡之间的差别变得模糊,许多城市将“搬到”农村Although adolescence is often viewed by parents as a carefree period of life虽然青春期被父母认为是一种无忧无虑的时期Although this is a serious subject, using this idiom indicates a kind of humor as well虽然这是个严肃的话题,使用这个习语同样还有可能是一种幽默的表达As pleasant as they are, one issue with predictable pleasures is that they run together虽然令人愉快,但是可预测的快乐活动中的一个问题是它们一起进行Mr. Meles says it will grow this year by 10%, though the IMF’s figure is about half as big梅莱斯说,今年经济增幅将达10%,虽然国际货币基金组织(IMF)预测的数字只有他说的一半He would be classified as rich by Chinese standards依照中国的标准,他会被归于富有一类Brush at least once daily or as directed by a dentist or physician每天至少刷牙一次,或依照牙医或医生指示的次数刷牙As envisioned by the FSA, the banks will have to meet three requirements依照FSA的设想,各银行必须满足三个要求As requested, we are sending you detailed information on our range of products依照您的要求,我们为您寄出了我方系列产品的精致资料As for the reform of the RMB exchange rate system, the exchange rate of the RMB is determined by market supply and demand and with reference to a basket of currencies关于人民币汇率形成机制的改革,我们汇率的形成是依照市场供求变化,并参照一篮子货币加以确定The insurer shall make compensation or payment according to the insured amount and according to the time limit for compensation or payment as agreed in the insurance contract保险合同对保险金额及赔偿或者给付期限有约定的,保险人应当依照保险合同的约定,履行赔偿或者给付保险金义务As a matter of fact, the security committee established by Resolution 661(1990) to oversee the strict implementation of the sanctions regime has not to date reported any violations of the sanctions事实上,安全委员会,就是依照决议661(1990)号成立、用以监督严格执行该制裁体制的委员会,迄今为止还没有报导过违反制裁的情况I will pray for guidance, and I will pray as a salesman我要祈祷,以一个推销员的身份来祈In my capacity as Dean of the Department, I regard it a pleasure to give you my opinion on him我以系主任的身份在此向你提供我对他的看法I have as much gold as silver我拥有的金子和银子同样多Such people as you describe are rare now你描写的这种人现在已很少见了But having two companies in competition is not as good as having 10 or 20但是有竞争的二家公司不同样地当做有10或20很好Similarly, a warm milky drink at bedtime works very well as milk is high in tryptophan(色氨酸)同样地,在睡前喝一杯富含色氨酸的温牛奶也是非常有效的As machines did more and more work, people did less and less因为机器做了越来越多的工作,而人们做的越来越少

(3)that和which的区别:①什么时候不能用that,只能用which:非限定性定语从句中,即逗号之后:.The tree, (which) is 400 years old, which is very famous here. (不能用that);介词后面不能用that,只能用which :We depend on the land, from which we can get our food.(不能用that)

但有一种情况:in that:表示因为;In respect that behind the prosperous of contemporary art market is the collusion and cooperation among galleries, auction houses, collectors and so on因为在当代艺术市场火暴的背后是画廊、拍卖行、收藏家等群体的共谋与合作

(4)什么时候不能用which,只能用that:① 前面的先行词是不定代词,包括all,anything,nothing,the one, much,little等;1.Have you taken down everything that Mr. Lee has said? 2.Of all his books this is the one I like best在他全部书籍中间,这本书是我最喜欢的3.In salary negotiations, the one who mentions money first loses在薪资协商中,第一个提到钱的人就是输家A realistic appraisal of the task ahead is therefore timely, and a businesslike approach is the one most likely to succeed因此,提前对这项任务进行切实可行的评估是适时的,而有条不紊的方法则最可能成功Sounds like “secure attachment” is the one to look for看来我们真正需要的应该是安全型依恋If you cannot win, make the one ahead of you break the record就算你不能赢,也要努力使你前面的一个人打破记录Further said that his invention on the one hand to realize the value of life更进一步说,他的发明一方面实现了自己的人生价值Because confidence includes so many of these other characteristic, it may just be the one major thing women look for in a man因为自信包含了如此多的其它因素,所以是女人从男人身上要寻找的一件很重要的东西② 如果先行词中出现了the only, the very等;This is the only way that we can think out. Our marriage was a cover from the very beginning我们的婚姻从一开始就是为了掩饰Some people think the very nature of virtual worlds can inspire bad behavior一些人认为虚拟世界的性质将会激发一些恶意行为③ 如果先行词中出现了序数词和形容词最高级;This is the best film that I have ever seen.④ 如果先行词中即有人,又有物;They are talking about the school and the teachers that they visited yesterday.

例:Medical researchers are painfully(费力地)aware that there are many problems (他们至今还没找到答案). They haven’t found solutions/answers to these problems. There are many problems which they haven’t found solutions/answers to.

例:(与我成长的地方相比),this town is more prosperous and exciting. Compared with the place in which/where I grew up,

例:(听到他告诉我的消息),I couldn’t help laughing.Hearing the news which/that he told me,

例:Career experts say that one of the ways job seekers can stay safe while using the Internet to search out jobs is to conceal(隐藏) their identities.

当先行词中是the way的时候,后面的连接词可以用that,可以用which和in which,甚至可以不填;I saw the way you looked at me at the wedding, And I see the way that you’re looking at me now

I think I’d rather… have you hate me Than feel sorry for me我看到你在婚礼上看我的眼神了,我也看到你现在看我的眼神。我更愿意让你恨我,也不愿让你可怜我。The way (in which) he did it attracted me他做这件事的方法吸引了我This is the way most vehemently recommended by teachers这就是老师们极力向我推荐的方法The way we look at privacy protection will need to be overhauled我们看待隐私保护的方法也将需要彻底改变There’s something wrong with the way you operate. Maybe we can do better你经营的方式有毛病,我们接管过来也许可以改进一下She obviously has a lot of problems, and her eating disorder could be the way she tries to maintain some control over her life很明显,她有很多问题,她不按规律吃饭的原因很可能就是她想努力去控制她的生活的一种方式You probably know that the way to stronger muscles is a weight or resistance training program, but do you know how weight lifting increases strength? 你或许知道要拥有强壮肌肉的办法是通过重量或者阻力训练计划。但是你知道举重是如何增加力量的吗?A worldwide debate is under way on the future of globalization and capitalism, and its resolution will define the world markets and the way we live for decades to come现在整个世界都在讨论全球化和资本主义制度该何去何从,其结论足以决定未来几十年全球市场发展和我们的生活方式”。 But a new study finds that the way children understand their own body movement actually depends on their culture. The research will appear in the journal Current Biology不过一项新的研究发现,儿童感受他们身体运动的方式实际上取决于他们文化。这项研究将发表在《当代生物学》杂志上Just as important is the question of whether a new project fits in with the way Cisco sees the network, be it within a company or at home: as a platform for all kinds of applications而另一个同样重要的问题就是,新项目是否符合思科看待网络的方式:即无论是面向公司还是家庭,思科眼中,网络是所有应用程序的平台At some moments in this crisis it has shown the way—by agreeing to supply dollars to countries that needed them, and by guaranteeing the contracts of European banks when it rescued a big insurer在这次危机的某些时刻,美国显示出了这一做法,同意提供美元给需要的国家,而且当欧洲的银行在援救一个大保险公司的时候,担保它们的合约

六.名词性从句

名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、补语从句及同位语从句;定义:在句子中起名词作用的句子,且在句子中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等成分;

(1)同位语从句:对前面名词的进一步解释 eg:I know the man, the president of the New Oriental School. 英语中的简单句:陈述句、一般疑问句、特殊疑问句。 eg:He is a student. Are you a student? Who is a student? 同位语从句:关系词不再和前面的名词有关系,而是取决于后面的从句; eg:I know the fact. He is a student. I know the fact that he is a student.

eg:I have a question. Are you a student? I have a question whether you are a student. I have a question who is a student.

I have no idea when he will come back.

注意:从句仍然接在名词之后,名词有可能为answer,belief,concept,explanation,fact,hope, message, news, promise, prove, question, thought等,后面可以接同位语从句;形式:名词+从句;连接词取决于后面的从句是什么样的形式;1.如果是陈述句,直接加that引导;I know the fact that he is a student.;2.一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上whether或者if;I have a question whether you are a student.3.特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序;I have a question who is a student. eg: The news soon spread the whole school. They had won the game. The news that they had won the game soon spread the whole school. The news that they had won the game came. News came that they had won the game.

eg:Information has been issued. More middle school student will be admitted to universities. Information that more middle school student will be admitted to universities has been issued. Information has been issued that more middle school student will be admitted to universities.

eg:The question was answered by the family doctor. Whether we should send for an specialist.The question whether we should send for an specialist(专家) was answered by the family doctor.

同位语从句的形式和定语从句的形式相似,两者最大的区别在于同位语从句的功能在于对前面的名词进行进一步的解释,定语从句的功能在于对前面的名词进行进一步的修饰和限定;

1.如果关系词为weather,how, what, 一定是同位语从句;2.如果名词前的关系词为when, where, why,若when前面的名词是地点,where前面的名词是时间,why 前面的名词是原因,那么一定是定语从句;若when, where, why前面不是地点、时间和原因,那么是同位语从句;3.如果关系词为which,则通过中文翻译进行区分;若which能翻译成哪一个,则一定是同位语从句,若不能,则为定语从句;4.如果关系词为that,则需要对句子进行成分分析来判定;如果that在句子中充当成分,则是定语从句,否则即为;

eg:The suggestion that she should stay in the room is good.(同位语从句) The suggestion that she has given in the meeting is good. (定语从句)

例:The fact that ordinary citizens are now starting to think seriously about the nation’s moral climate, says this ethics professor at the University of Chicago, is reason to hope that new ideas will come forward to improve it.

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(2) 宾语从句:从句部分的连词取决于从句是一般疑问句、特殊疑问句还是陈述句; eg:We must find out who did all these. I want to know whether he will come. I hope that he will come.

① 宾语从句的时态:如果宾语从句前的动词是过去式,则宾语从句的时态应相应变成过去时态;Todd Park, a local detective, said the method has helped him learn more about an unidentified woman whose skeleton(骨骼) was found near Great Salt Lake.如果宾语从句是客观事实或真理,不管宾语从句前的动词时什么时态,宾语从句都用一般现在时;The teacher told us that the earth is round.

② 宾语从句后接陈述句,用that引导,则that一般可以省略;I think(that)you are right.

③ 宾语从句如果谓语动词是doubt,后面接的一般疑问句通常用weather或if引导;1.I doubt whether he is telling the truth.2. I doubt if such a foreign custom will take root among these people我不能肯定这样的外国习俗是否会在这些人之间生根如果前面的谓语动词是don’t doubt,则后面从句的连接词一定是that;I don’t doubt that he is telling the truth 宾语从句如果谓语动词是wonder,句型为I wonder if,后面的连接词不能用weather;I wonder if we can tell, just by looking at it. 我怀疑我们光看照片是否可以分辨日落或是日出Soon it will no doubt be possible to say with confidence who the perpetrators were毫无疑问,我们很快就可以满怀信心地说恐怖袭击者是谁了I felt now, without a doubt, that I had experienced her birth pains, and part of her trauma, too毫无疑问,我感到自己经历了她生育的阵痛,还有一部分她受到的损伤John is such a know it all when it comes to history. I wonder if he majored in history, or if it’s just his hobby当谈到历史方面的内容时,约翰真是无所不知。我很想知道他是否专修过历史,或者仅仅是他的业余爱好

④宾语从句的否定转移:(1).think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式;1.I don’t think I know you. 2.I don’ t believe he will come. I don’t think Father will fancy living an idle life that. 我想祖辈们没有想象过要过那种闲散的生活,”I cannot imagine that this would be unsolvable, ” said a fund manager based in Shanghai“我很难想象这个问题会无法解决,”驻上海的一位基金经理表示So can we expect a credit boom in Germany? 那我们能够指望德国出现信贷繁荣吗?We cannot expect that all nations will adopt like systems我们不能指望所有国家都采纳相同的制度I suppose choosing the right project is the key point我估计选择合适的项目是个关键。

(2).将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。1.It doesn’t seem that they know where to go. 2.It doesn’t appear that we’ll have a sunny day tomorrow.

(3)表语从句 构成方式:1.若从句为陈述句,直接加that;2.若从句为特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序;1.China is no longer what she used to be. 2.The question is who is responsible for what has happened.3.若从句为一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if;

(4)主语从句:主语变成一个句子,构成方式:1.若从句为陈述句,直接加that; 2.若从句为特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序; 3.若从句为一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上whether或者if;位置:直接置于句首;1.That the college will take in more students is true.2.Whether he will come or not hasn’t been decided.3.Why he isn’t here is not clear to everyone.

it 做形式主语的情况:(1)It is+名词+主语从句;It is a pity that you should have to leave.(2)It is+形容词+主语从句;It is clear that the whole project is due to failure.

如果是It is necessary/important/strange/natural+that引导的主语从句,从句中的谓语动词一定要用should+动词原形;It is necessary that one should master the skills of operating computer.

(3)It is+过去分词+主语从句;It is said/planted/expected…It is said that President Bush will visit our school next week.(4)It is+不及物动词+形容词表语形式+主语从句;It seemed certain that he will win the prize.

七、 从句的判别和应用 Weather she will come or not is unknown.(主语从句) It is unknown whether he will come or not.(主语从句) I don’t know whether he will come or not.(宾语从句) The question is whether he will come or not.(表语从句) The question whether he will come or not is not settled.(同位语从句)1.__________(很多人没有意识到的)is that Simon is a lover of sports , and football in particular .(what many people didn’t realize)

2.It was very dark, but Mary seemed to__________(本能地知道该走哪条路)(know which way to take by instinct)

3.In my sixties, one change I notice is that _________________ (我比以前更容易累了).(I feel/get tired more easily than before)4.Global warming may or may not be the great environmental crisis of the 21st century, but- regardless of whether it is or isn’t – we won’t do much about it.

5.Because they usually receive the same score on standard examinations. There is often disagreement at who is the better student, Bob or Hellen?6.Your resume should attract a would-be boss’s attention by demonstrating _____ (为什么你是某个特定职位的最佳人选). (why you would be the best candidate for a certain position.)

7.Since my childhood I have found that ________ (没有什么比读书对我更有吸引力).(Nothing is more attractive/appealing to me than reading)

八 状语从句

状语从句:两个独立的句子中间用一些含义不同的连接词连接;状语从句用来表达两个句子之间的逻辑关系;分成原因状语、条件状语、结果状语、时间状语、地点状语、让步状语、目的状语、比较状语、方式状语等九大类型;I got up late.I was late for school.1.Because I got up late, I was late for school. (原因状语从句)2.I got up late,so I was late for school. (结果状语从句)

1. 地点状语:地点状语从句由where, wherever,everywhere 引导;1.Where I live there are plenty of trees.2.Wherever(no matter where) you work, you will gain much valuable experience as long as you are willing to work. 3.Everywhere they went, they were warmly received.where:不能翻译成在……地方时,通常翻译为如果,表示在……条件下;1.Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者事竟成2.Where you are confident,you will succeed.3.Where previously the bank had concentrated on the big infrastructure projects , such as dams, roads and bridges,it begin to switch to projects which directly improved the basic services of a country.

2. 方式状语从句:由as, as if, as though,the way, what引导;1.Always do to the others as you would be done by.2.When enter Rome do as the Romans do.(1)as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是”正如…”,”就像”;As one chapter title puts it, to die poor is a sin这如同文中一章的题目所言,穷死是可耻的

(2)as if/though:”仿佛……似的”,”好像……似的”;有时用虚拟语气,有时不用:They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.(事实相反,用虚拟语气。)1.He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)2.It looks as if the weather may pick up(好转) very soon.(实现的可能性较大,用陈述语气。)

3.It looks as if their core business is a solution to a non-existent problem似乎它们的核心业务是要解决一个根本不存在的问题

(3)the way:可以连接两个句子,表达就像……一样;1.I should do the job the way my father did. 2.Many Europeans now apparently view the US. the way many Americans view Mexican as a cheap place to vacation, shop and party.

(4)what:就像,犹如句型:A is to B what C is to D;Air is to man what/as water is to fish.It calls global warming an “inconvenient truth(不愿面对的真相),” as if merely recognizing it could put us on a path to a solution(找到解决的办法.)

3. 目的状语从句:可以由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等词引导;lest:以防;从句中的谓语动词必须用should+动词原形;1.He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it.2.He took the umbrella with him lest it should rain.

in case:以防;与lest不同,从句里的时态不做特殊变化;2.Take the umbrella with you in case it rains.

for feat that:和lest保持一致;A variety of activities should be organized so that participants can remain active as long as they want and then go on to something else without feeling guilty(内疚的) and without letting the other participants down.let…down…:1. Many who escaped said they felt let down by the authorities许多逃离家园的人认为他们被当局忽略了 2. Organizers say the summit comes at a time when much of the world feels let down by those in charge组织者说,现在大多数人对当前的领导者感到失望,而峰会正是在这样的背景下召开的 3.Its expert researchers and analysts still continue in their work, but sometimes feel let down by what the leadership chooses to showcase其专家研究员和分析家继续从事它们的工作,但是有时候会因为领导层所选择展示的东西而感到失望.

4. 结果状语从句:由so… that 或 such…that引导;so保留,that可以省略;如此……以至于……;1.He didn’t abide by the contract so that he was fined(罚款).2.He was so excited that he couldn’t fall asleep.3.He made such an inspiring speech that everybody got excited.

比较:so和 such(1)so:so +形容词、副词+that;so+形容词+a/an+名词+that;1.The wind was so strong that we could hardly move forward.2.He runs so fast that I couldn’t catch up with him.3.It was so hot a day that crops wilted.4.He is so lovely a boy that everyone loves him.

(2)such:such+a/an+形容词+名词+that 1.It was such a hot day that crops(农作物) wilted(枯萎的).2.He is such a lovely boy that everyone loves him.

5.比较状语从句:than, as…as…,not so as…,(not) the same as, the+比较级;1.Light travels fast than sound.2.Get your paper in when you can; the sooner, the better尽可能早交你的论文,愈快愈好 3.Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and art kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school – the prophecy(预言) becomes self- fulfilling(自行实现), trapping(使陷入) women in a vicious circle (恶性循环) of neglect.4. This winter, see if you can hear how the season transforms sound, as well as the scenery这个冬天看看你能不能聆听到季节象改变景色一样改变了声音5. love is to be felt as well as known爱是要被感觉以及知道的6. After all the device is not so heavy as you think这个装置毕竟不象你想的那么重7. This question is not so foolish as it may seem这个问题并不像它看起来那么愚蠢8. The latter speaker is not so good as the former最近的讲演者没有从前的那么好9. But economic power is not the same as political power但是经济力量与政治势力不一样10. Do they get paid the same as men? I mean, equal pay for equal work?她们得到与男人一样的报酬吗?我的意思是,同工同酬吗?

6 时间状语从句

(1)当……的时候:while, when, as ;1.when:强调一件事情正在发生的时候,另外一件事情突然发生;When I was watching TV, my mother came back.2.while:强调两个动作同时进行,一边……一边……;My father is cooking while my mother is reading newspaper.3.as:”随时间推移”;As time went by, the days became longer and longer.

(2)一……就……:as soon as ,主将从现;As soon as he comes back , I’ll tell him the news(他一回来,我就告诉他这个消息),用directly,immediately, instantly连接两个句子;1.I went home directly(一…就) I had finished my work.2. When problems come, I was immediately affected by it (inferiority, worries, accusation…) and continue to see my current situation and my unworthy condition当问题一来时我就马上很容易被影响(自卑,忧虑,受控告…)而继续看我现在的情况和我不配的条件;一些名词如the minute,the moment, the instant也可表示;1.The book was an instant success in schools all over the country在全国的学校,这本书立刻取得了成功 2.I will write to you the moment/minute I arrived in Paris.;no sooner… than, hardly… when后面的句子需要倒装;1.No sooner was the frost off the ground than the work began地上的霜一消散,人们就开始工作了2.Her parents had no sooner come than she rented a flat她父母一来,她就租了一套公寓3. No sooner said than done说到做到4. Hardly when I got ready to continue the topic I talked with my friend, the telephone rang! 就在我正准备接着那个话题继续和朋友聊天的时候,电话铃响了。

(3)特殊单词:by the time that, every/each time(使用时后面不要再加when)1.By the time that we act together到了该我们一起行动的时候了2. By the time that happens, a storm is imminent一旦形成了云或雨后,就意味着风暴即将来临3. You look more beautiful each / every time I see you每次见到你,你都看起来更漂亮

(4)till&until: ① 肯定形式表示的意思是”做某事直至某时”,动词必须是延续性的;1.I slept until midnight. 2.Wait till I call you 否定形式表达的意思是”直至某时才做某事”,一般用until,动词为延续性或非延续性都可以;She didn’t arrive until 6 o’clock.

② Until可用于句首,而till通常不用于句首,通常用于句中; eg: Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened.

注意:As you sleep you pass through a sequence of sleep states—light sleep, deep sleep and REM (rapid eye movement) sleep—that repeats approximately every 90 minutes.

7. 条件状语从句:(1)连接词:if, once, as long as, on condition that ① 如果引导的条件可以实现,主将从现;1.I’ll do it on condition that you pay for everything本人能够做此事,条件是你得支付一切费用2.If winter comes can spring be far behind 3.As long as it doesn’t rain, we can play 3.You can go out on condition that(只要)you wear an overcoat

② 如果引导的条件和事实相反,则用虚拟语气;

注意:Modern cars are far tougher(困难的) to steal, as(因为) their engine management computer won’t allow them to start unless they receive a unique ID code beamed out(射出) by the ignition (点火) key(钥匙).

Given what had happened after Lehman’s failure, only fools would have run this experiment考虑到雷曼破产后出现的情况,只有傻子才会进行这样的尝试Provided that we get support from them, we will win the match假如我们能取得他们的支持,我们就能赢得比赛This is acceptable provided the pallet load itself is adequately identified假如托盘本身可以准确地鉴定,这是可以接受的Provided bad feeling were full of your near, the living will be distress倘若周围都是坏的感觉,生命岂能不煎熬Suppose that this path rose by 2% each year假设这条轨迹每年上升2% Suppose, though, that both companies have been lent money by the same troubled bank that is now calling in its loans然而,假设两家公司都在从同一家陷入困境的银行贷款,而这家银行正要求收回贷款,那么情况又会怎样?

8. 原因状语从句:连接词:because, since, as, for ,now that, in that, owing to, due to, thanks to, because of , as a result of;

比较:because, since, as和for

1)because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。I didn’t go, because I was afraid;当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.

2)由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用for来代替。He is absent today, because / for he is ill(As/since he is ill, he is absent today)但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。He must be ill, for he is absent today.

(3)now that :既然;Now that this semester is finished, I am going to rest a few days and take a trip

(4)in that :因为,通常只能放在句中,强调重要的,唯一的原因;Human beings are different from animals in that human can speak and think.

(5)owing to, due to, thanks to, because of , as a result of等短语后面只能接词或短语,不能接从句;Owing to his rich experience, his salary was very high由于他经验丰富,他的工资很高, Owing to unfavorable weather we were unable to proceed由于天气不好,我们不能继续前进, This is partly due to demand这部分是由于需求增大所致This could be due to inflation这个可能归因于通货膨胀This year firms have cut their hiring due to the economic crisis今年由于金融危机的影响,公司纷纷减少雇佣人数Thanks to the expansion of successful firms and the entry of new ones, however, many more jobs were created than destroyed可是由于那些成功企业的扩张以及新企业的进入,创造的工作机会多出了被摧毁的工作机会Human differ from animals because of their ability to speak and use tools人类和其他动物不同, 在于他会说话和会使 用工具Productivity has risen over the decades, partly because of more capital per employee but also as a result of higher skill among workers生产率数十年来一直在增长,部分原因是平均每个雇员的资本投入更高了,但也是工人技能提高的结果

9. 让步状语从句

常见的连接词有though, although,as, while, even though

区分though,although: Although/though he is a child, he can live by himself.as 表示虽然的时候,要进行倒装; Child as/though he is, he can live by himself.注意:1.Although/though she works very hard, she makes very little progress.(Hard as she works, she makes very little progress.)2.Although/though she is young; she has travelled to many countries to put shows.(Young as she is, she has travelled to many countries to put shows.)

while:连接两个句子,表示虽然,但是;He is experienced while(虽然)he is young.

1.The anti-virus agent was not known (直到一名医生偶然发现了它)until a doctor find it by chance.

2.I would prefer shopping online to shopping in a department store because __________(它更加方便和省时)it is more convenient and timesaving.

3.But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands(更靓的品牌) aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care.

4. While there’s no question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion(应付自如) can be good for you.

九 从句的复习

复合句:定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句。(1)定语从句:

1. that,which,who的使用。一个句子当中有两个相同的名词,将其中的一个名词进行替换,如果是人,用who;如果是物,用which;that既可以指人又可以指物。 2. 谓语动词(结构)和后面的介词有两种关系:关系紧密和关系疏远;定语从句中如果谓语结构和介词关系紧密,则介词必须保留在谓语结构的后面,不能做任何位置的改动;如果谓语结构和介词关系疏远,介词一般提到which/who/that的前面; 介词加which正好表示时间,可以表达成when;表示地点时,可以表达成where;表示原因时,变成why; 3. 限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系非常紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思会改变;非限定性定语从句:定语从句和关系词关系不是很紧密,删掉定语从句后,整个句子意思不会改变,定语从句只起到补充说明的意义;

(2)非限定性定语从句:He won the first place in the competition, which is out of our expectation.(As is out of our expectation, he won the first place in the competition)

(2)名词性从句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句及同谓语从句;形式:名词+从句;连接词取决于后面的从句是什么样的形式;如果是陈述句,直接加that引导;一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if;特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序;定义:在句子中起名词作用的句子,且在句子中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同谓语、介词宾语等成分;Yuminhong, the president of New Oriental School.

(3)状语从句:两个独立的句子中间用一些含义不同的连接词连接;状语从句用来表达两个句子之间的逻辑关系;分成原因状语、条件状语、结果状语、时间状语、地点状语、让步状语、目的状语、比较状语、方式状语等九大类型;

定语从句:名词+关系词+从句,关系词的用法取决于名词的问题; 名词性从句:同谓语从句:名词+关系词+从句,关系词跟后面的从句有关系,如果是陈述句,直接加that引导;一般疑问句:先把一般疑问句变成陈述句语序,然后在其前加上weather或者if;特殊疑问句:直接保留特殊疑问词,后面的句子变成陈述句语序; 宾语从句:动词+关系词+从句;表语从句:系动词+关系词+从句;主语从句:关系词+从句+谓语动词;名词性从句,其关系词的来源取决于后面的从句的性质。 状语从句:完整句子1+逻辑关系词+完整句子2;

如何区分定语从句和同谓语从句:whether,what,how接在名词后面一定是同谓语从句;关系词是when ,where,why如果前面不是时间、地点、人物,那么是同谓语从句;如果是的话,则为定语从句;如果见到which的话,which在句中翻译成“哪一个”,就是同谓语;翻译不成“哪一个”就是定语从句;that 就是看它在句中是否充当成分,如果充当成分就是定语从句;不充当成分就是同谓语从句;

1.Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved.(主语从句)是否这个计划是可行的仍然值得去考证。

2.I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness.(宾语从句)我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。

3.They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy(可靠的).(同谓语从句)

4.At time when hiring qualified people is becoming more difficult,employers who can eliminate invalid bias from the process have a distinct advantage.(定语从句)在雇佣合格人才变得越来越困难的时期,那些能够在雇佣过程中消除站不住脚的偏见的雇主具有明显的优势。

5.While(让步状语从句)even the modestly educated sought an elevated tone when (时间状语从句)they put pen to paper before the 1960s, even the most well regarded writing since then has sought to capture spoken English on the page.在20世纪60年代之前,当人们伏案写作的时候,即使那些接受教育不多的人也会追求一种高雅的风格,但是从那以后,即使是那些令人敬仰的文学作品也在追求一种口语的风格。

6.About 45% of the world’s population lived in the climate zone where mosquito transmit disease.全球45%的人口都生活在这样的一个区域,这个地方的蚊子会传播疾病。

7.He was an Asian American(who was)raised in a household where respectful zones in authority was show by averting your eyes.(定语从句)他是一个亚裔美国人,在他生长的环境当中,避免与有权威的人对视是对对方尊重的一种表现。

十 as的用法

as在状语从句中可以表示时间、原因、让步;as的基本使用情况:

1、as作介词,表示作为,一般情况下后面只能接一个名词;1.She works as a doctor. 2.As a League member, I’ll take the lead in everything.作为一名团员,事事我都要身先士卒。2、as作关系代词,as引导这样的从句一般最好是放在句子的开头; The moon travels round the earth once every month which is known to everybody. As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month.

As we have seen,the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease – especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits,smoking and failure to exercise.

3、as 充当连词来构成状语从句;① 时间状语从句(当…..的时候),As the summer comes, the day becomes shorter and shorter.②原因状语从句(表示显而易见的原因),和since 在用法上保持一致。As she was not feeling well, we all sold her to stay at home. 因为她感觉到不舒服,我们都叫他留在家里③让步状语从句,although 引导的句子可以转换成as 的用法。1.Although she may fail.(Fail as she may.)2.Although the graph is simple.(Simple as the graph is.)3.Although he is rich, he doesn’t have any friends.(Rich as he is, he doesn’t have any friends.)

④方式状语从句(就像….一样;正如….一样);Do as the instruction says.按照说明书上的要求去做。He came as we expected. 他就像我们所期待的那样来了。⑤比较状语从句:I’m as tall as you.

as短语:as long as只要;such as例如;as soon as 一….就……; so as to 为了;as if 好像;as though 好像; just as 正如;You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark你可以去你任何想去的地方,只要你在天黑之前回来。He talks as if he knew all about it.他谈起这件事来就好像什么都知道似的。(as if 引导方式状语从句,从句中常用虚拟语气) It is just as I told you.情况正如我跟你说的一样。(just as引导表语从句)。So it looks as though cheap money stopped markets taking all the medicine they needed因此,看起来好像是廉价资金阻止了市场服下它们所需的全部药品。The information they swap should remain confidential, so as to protect sources and (legitimate) methods他们交换的信息需要保密,来保护来源和(正当的)手段。Start clean-up as soon as possible, especially if flooding has occurred尽快开展卫生清理工作,特别是发生过洪水的时候。A busy day-long living, as soon as lay down is resting忙了一天的活,一躺下就睡着了。注意:1、尽管他们很小,although they are small / small as they are 2、你所描述的这种人(Such people as you described) are rare nowadays. 3、This basket is 和那个一样的大(as big as that one)。1. As the words begin to flow, the ideas will come out from the shadows and let themselves be captured(留存)on your notepad(笔记本)or your screen.(分析)as是连词的作用,译为“当….时候”,引导时间状语从句(译文)当文字开始倾泻,观点就会明朗,自己就会跃然纸上或是呈现在你的屏幕上。2. Most likely, you will believe that this will take more time than you actually have and you will end up staring blankly at the pages as the deadline draws near.(分析)as引导的是时间状语从句,译为“随着…..”(译文)很有可能,你会相信这比你实际用的时间要长,随着最终期限的临近,你就会以茫然地盯着纸这样的方式而结束。It is… that … 形式主语,强调句型强调句型:无指代关系,也无实义,去掉后剩余的词仍能单独组成一个完整的句子。It is in 1998 that I came to Beijing.

形式主语:It is clear that I came to Beijing. 我来到北京这件事是显而易见的。

It is known to everybody that as a major export country, China plays an important role in the world economic structure中国作为出口大国,在世界经济格局中占据着重要地位It is well-known to everybody that the earth goes around the sun地球围绕着太阳转是众所周知的事实It is known to everybody that paper was invented by the Chinese众所周知,纸是中国人发明的We know that the “universal heritage” in museum collections can be made known, transmitted and made available in visual terms to almost everybody in the world who is interested in it我们知道,通过“虚拟技术”博物馆的文物可以被全世界感兴趣的人们浏览和传播If you want your network closed, it is not difficult at all to make that fact known to everybody如果你想让你的网络关闭,它并不困难,每个人都知道这一事实。

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