The new year brought new desks for students at Vallecito ElementarySchool, in San Rafael, California. The last three of the school’s 22 classroomsswitched from seated desks to standing desks. “It’s now the first all-standingschool,” Juliet Starrett told TFK. She started the group StandUp Kids. Her goalis to have every U.S. public school kid using a standing desk within the next10 years.
Starrett’s daughters—Georgia, 10, and Caroline, 7—attend Vallecito.They are thrilled with their desks. “You feel happier, you’re less tired, andyou’re more active,” Georgia says.
Some of the desks have wheels and fidget bars. The bars let kidsmove in a way that doesn’t disturb the class. Wheels allow the desks to bemoved easily. The desks also adjust to different heights. Kids take breaks bysitting on the floor or on stools.
There is the trend of designing things to make them easy and safe touse. According to Mark Benden, director of the Texas A&M Center, standingworkers are more focused and healthier. He says his research shows that kidsusing standing desks are more engaged and burn more calories (卡路里). InDecember, researchers in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdomreleased similar findings. But not everyone is convinced standing is betterthan sitting. Some parents and teachers worry that kids will get tired and thatstanding for long periods of time may be harmful. And standing desks are moreexpensive.
Benden says both sitting and standing desks can cause problems ifthey are not the proper height. “Our message should not be ‘Sit less, standmore,’” he says, “but ‘Sit less, move more.’”
1. How many classrooms in Vallecito areequipped with standing desks?
2. What is Paragraph 3 mainly about?
A. Why standing desks are used.
B. Where standing desks are used.
C. How standing desks are used.
D. Who use standing desks.
3. Mark Benden’s research shows that kidsusing standing desks .
A. feel more tired
B. are more focused
C. get better scores
D. tend to eat more
4. The researchers in Australia and the UK(para. 4) .
A. would agree with Benden
B. are not fully convinced by Benden
C. partly support Benden’s findings
D. find it hard to accept Benden’s theory
5. Some parents and teachers worry that usingstanding desks may .
A. disturb the kids in class
B. leave the classroom noisy
C. harm the students’ health
D. increase the teachers’ workload
Japan and Germany have the world’s oldest populations, but neithercountry has enough trained health care workers to meet the needs of older adults.So, they are turning to Vietnam for help. This month, 100 young Vietnamese aregoing to Germany as part of a project to train what are called geriatric (老年的) nursesto work in the European country. The trainees recently completed a six-monthlanguage and culture class, they will spend the next two years in anoccupational training program. If the trainees pass the final exam, they willbe able to work in Germany as geriatric nurses for another 3 years.
Germany is facing a crisis as low birth rates combine with a growingpopulation of citizens who are living longer. About 20 percent of thepopulation is over the age of 65, and that percentage is expected to continuerising.
This is a problem Japan also faces. Later this year, 150 Vietnamesecandidates will go to Japan for two years of training at the country’shospitals, after that they are expected to take the national nursing exam. Japanalready trains nurses from the Philippines and Indonesia, but the health caresystem has been criticized for being too harsh. All candidates must take thesame exam, but it is very difficult for foreign applicants because few canspeak the Japanese language.
Even with an aging population, many Japanese are opposed toforeigners working in some industries. Critics say foreign labor could lead tohigher unemployment, but there is little opposition to foreign nurses.
In Vietnam, the situation is very different. 60 percent of thepopulation was born after the Vietnam war ended in 1985. There are not enoughjobs for everyone who wants one in Vietnam, but learning the nursing skills canhelp them find jobs overseas.
6. The overseas Vietnamese nurses mustcomplete the following EXCEPT.
A. a culture course
B. a health care exam
C. a language training
D. a driving test
7. A Vietnamese youngster will spend atleast in Germany before working there as a geriatricnurse.
A. six months
B. one and a half years
C. two and a half years
D. five years
8. It is inferred from the passage that inJapan.
A. the health care system is much more strict than that in Germany
B. the majority of nurses are from Vietnam,Indonesia and the Philippines
C. the Vietnamese who pass the national exams will be trained at hospitals
D. foreigners find it hard to pass nursing exams because few can speak Japanese
9. Faced with the aging population, manyJapanese .
A. welcome foreign nurses working in Japan
B. oppose foreign labor working in most places
C. criticize the government for being tooharsh
D. blame the government for highunemployment
10. The last paragraph indicates that .
A. the Vietnamese also face the agingproblem
B. over half of the Vietnamese are underthe age of 45
C. sixty percent people cannot find jobs inVietnam
D. more and more Vietnamese have found jobs abroad
Born around 1770 in Tennessee, Sequoyah was a Cherokee. Like otherNative Americans of that time, he could neither read nor write. He couldn’thelp noticing, though, how white people wrote to one another on sheets ofpaper. They often used these “talking leaves,” as some Native Americans calledthem, to communicate.
Back then, the Cherokee had no way to write down words in their ownlanguage. Sequoyah believed it was important for the Cherokee to have a systemof writing. So, in 1809, he set out to create an alphabet that the Cherokeecould use to do just that.
Sequoyah started by drawing pictures, with each one representing adifferent word or idea. He soon realized that writing sentences using pictureswould be much too difficult. There were too many words. No one would ever beable to remember that many pictures.
Sequoyah decided to try a different approach. He began to developsymbols to stand for the sounds, or syllables (音节), that made upwords. Twelve years later, he completed a system of writing with 86 differentsymbols. Each one stood for a different syllable in the Cherokee language. Thesymbols could easily be put together to form words. Soon thousands of Cherokeewere able to read and write in their own language.
Sequoyah’s work did not end there, however. He helped to establish aprint shop and began publishing a bilingual newspaper in both Cherokee andEnglish. The shop also printed books translated from English into Cherokee. Inlater years, Sequoyah also became a political leader among the Cherokee.
11. As can be learned from the firstparagraph, a Cherokee was a .
A. Native Americans
C. White man
12. “Talking leaves” in the final paragraphrefers to .
A. English spellings
B. pieces of paper with words
C. English sentences
D. tree leaves that make sounds
13. To create an alphabet, Sequoyah beganwith pictures that stand for .
一、语音知识：共5小题;每题1.5分，共7.5分。在下列每组单词中，有一个单词的划线部分与其他单词的划线部分的读音不同。找出这个词。1. 请选择出划线部分读音不同的选项( )。A. batheB. b…
14. Sequoyah’s invention was important tothe Cherokee, because .
A. the Cherokee are now able to read and write
B. the Cherokee now make a living with thewriting system
C. one of their parks was named afterSequoyah
D. the Cherokee are proud of hisachievement
15. Sequoyah is best remembered for .
A. being able to read and write
B. being raised as a Cherokee
C. drawing pictures to represent words orideas
D. inventing a written language for the Cherokee
Closed Circuit Television, usually abbreviated to CCTV, iseverywhere in today’s society. In fact, when we go about our everyday lives itis virtually impossible to avoid it. If you take a bus to school, there will bea camera on it. When you pop out to the supermarket to buy some bread, a camerawill be watching you walk around the shop. If you look up, you’ll see camerason many street corners, at bus stops, on trains and even in some publictoilets. We seem to have developed an obsession (迷恋) with them!
In 2013, an article published in The Guardian (a British newspaper)stated that there was 1 camera for every 11 people in Britain. There are estimatedto be around 6 million CCTV cameras across Britain – now that’s a lot ofcameras! Thanks to our apparent love of CCTV, Britain has been nicknamed the”surveillance state”.
CCTV is a vital tool for the police and can help solve crimes – anotable example would be the James Bulger case from 1993. CCTV images meantthat the two boys who committed the crime were caught and prosecuted. However,CCTV does not always have all the answers. Sometimes the images aren’t clearenough to identify people; often, criminals obscure their faces to avoid beingcaught. Recently, some talking CCTV cameras have been installed in the UK.These react to movement, and warn criminals that their photo has been taken.
In my opinion, CCTV has gone too far. As a nation, we rely on it fartoo much. At what point did we decide to replace police officers withtechnology? Many people claim to feel safer as a result of CCTV; if more policewere around I’m sure they’d feel just as safe! Many schools across Britain haveinstalled CCTV – in classrooms, toilets and changing rooms. They say it helpsto prevent bullying – but surely something else could be done instead?
16. According to Paragraph 1, CCTV________
A. can be easily avoided
B. is widely used in society
C. can be bought in supermarket
D. makes public streets much safer
17. The word “surveillance” (Para.2)probably means “________”.
18. Why does the author mention the JamesBulger case?
A. It is a well-known case in the UK.
B. It proves the importance of CCTV.
C. It is a lesson for the British police.
D. It warns of the danger from boycriminals.
19. According to the passage, the talkingCCTV cameras__________.
A. do not have clear images
B. help find hidden criminals
C. can identify dim faces
D. give warnings to criminals
20. What is the author’s attitude towardsCCTV?
【解析】根据原文”According to Mark Benden, director of the Texas A&M Center, standing workers are more focused and healthier.”可知答案选B.
【解析】根据原文”In December, researchers in New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom released similar findings.”可知答案选A.
【解析】根据原文”Some parents and teachers worry that kids will get tired and that standing for long periods of time may be harmful.”可知答案选C.
【解析】根据原文”The trainees recently completed a six-month language and culture class, they will spend the next two years in an occupational training program.”可知答案选D.
【解析】根据原文”The trainees recently completed a six-month…, they will spend the next two years…”可知答案选C.
【解析】根据原文”All candidates must take the same exam, but it is very difficult for foreign applicants because few can speak the Japanese language.”可知答案选D.
【解析】根据原文”Even with an aging population, many Japanese are opposed to foreigners working in some industries. Critics say foreign labor could lead to higher unemployment, but there is little opposition to foreign nurses.”可知答案选B.
【解析】根据原文”There are not enough jobs for everyone who wants one in Vietnam, but learning the nursing skills can help them find jobs overseas.”可知答案选D.
【解析】根据原文”Born around 1770 in Tennessee, Sequoyah was a Cherokee. Like other Native Americans of that time, he…”可知答案选A.
【解析】根据原文They often used these “talking leaves”中”talking leaves”前的these可知，这里指代的是前文中的”…sheets of paper”。
【解析】根据原文”Sequoyah started by drawing pictures…”可知答案选C.
【解析】根据原文”Soon thousands of Cherokee were able to read and write in their own language.”可知答案选A.
【解析】根据原文”Closed Circuit Television, usually abbreviated to CCTV, is everywhere in today’s society.”可知答案选B.
【解析】根据原文”CCTV is a vital tool for the police and can help solve crimes–a notable example would be the James Bulger case from 1993.”可知答案选B.
【解析】根据原文”These react to movement, and warn criminals that their photo has been taken.”可知答案选D.